Phase coexistence and electric-field control of toroidal order in oxide superlattices
Damodaran, A.R., J.D. Clarkson, Z. Hong, H. B. Liu, A.K. Yadav, C.T. Nelson, S.-L. Hsu, M.R. McCarter, K.-D. Park, V. Kravtsov, A. Farhan, Y. Dong, Z. Cai, H. Zhou, P. Aguado-Puente, P. García-Fernández, J. Íñiguez, J. Junquera, A. Scholl, M.B. Raschke, L.-Q. Chen, D.D. Fong, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, L.W. Martin
Systems that exhibit phase competition, order parameter coexistence, and emergent order parameter topologies constitute a major part of modern condensed-matter physics. Here, by applying a range of characterization techniques, and simulations, we observe that in PbTiO"3/SrTiO"3 superlattices all of these effects can be found. By exploring superlattice period-, temperature- and field-dependent evolution of these structures, we observe several new features. First, it is possible to engineer phase coexistence mediated by a first-order phase transition between an emergent, low-temperature vortex phase with electric toroidal order and a high-temperature ferroelectric a"1/a"2 phase. At room temperature, the coexisting vortex and ferroelectric phases form a mesoscale, fibre-textured hierarchical superstructure. The vortex phase possesses an axial polarization, set by the net polarization of the surrounding ferroelectric domains, such that it possesses a multi-order-parameter state and belongs to a class of gyrotropic electrotoroidal compounds. Finally, application of electric fields to this mixed-phase system permits interconversion between the vortex and the ferroelectric phases concomitant with order-of-magnitude changes in piezoelectric and nonlinear optical responses. Our findings suggest new cross-coupled functionalities. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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