Morrison, F.D., Y. Luo, I. Szafraniak, V. Nagarajan, R.B. Wehrspohn, M. Steinhart, J.H. Wendorff, N.D. Zakharov, E.D. Mishina, K.A. Vorotilov, A.S. Sigov, S. Nakabayashi, M. Alexe, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, J.F. Scott
We report the independent invention of ferroelectric nanotubes from groups in several countries. Devices have been made with three different materials: lead zirconate-titanate PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT); barium titanate BaTiO3; and strontium bismuth tantalate SrBi2Ta2O9,(SBT). Several different deposition techniques have been used successfully, including misted CSD (chemical solution deposition) and pore wetting. Ferroelectric hysteresis and high optical nonlinearity have been demonstrated. The structures are analyzed via SEM, TEM, XRD, AFM (piezo-mode), and SHG. Applications to trenching in Si dynamic random access memories, ink-jet printers, and photonic devices are discussed. Ferroelectric filled pores as small as 20 nm in diameter have been studied. © 2003 Advanced Study Center Co. Ltd.
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